Volume XIII-Spring 2024

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

Nathan S. Cabrera ’24
Connor J. Eickelman ’24

EDITORS

Benjamin G. Currin ’25
Ethan T. Currin ’25
Peter K. Gemborys ’25
Camden T.T. Libby ’26
Henry E. Loehr ’24
Matthew T. Miscikowski ’26
Evan A. Old ’26

ADVISOR

Michael J. Wolyniak
Department of Biology

Cover Photo:

Mitochondrial transplantation in endothelial cells: Microvesicles containing Dendra-2 labelled (green) mitochondria isolated from conditioned media of primary astrocyte culture by centrifugation. Enriched microvesicles were added to cultured endothelial cells for 48 hours. After washings, cells were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and then immunostained against TOM20 (pink) that labels both endogenous and transplanted (green) mitochondria. Nucleus and cell membrane were stained with DAPI (blue) and wheat germ agglutinin (red), respectively. Note the one cell to the left that conspicuously integrated Dendra-2 (green) mitochondria throughout its soma that co-labeled with TOM20 (pink), to fluoresce yellow. Transplanted Dendra-2-labeled mitochondria showed diminished fluorescence when stained for TOM20 using same camera settings; may be due to change in epitope affinity for TOM20 by transgene. Scale bar = 50 µm. Fluorescence Z-stack images were taken using a confocal microscope (Nikon AXR), 100X oil immersion and denoised using NIS elements, Nikon.

Courtesy of Dr. Alexander “Sasha” Rabchevsky ’88, University of Kentucky.  This issue features an interview with Dr. Rabchevsky, his time at H-SC, and his work in overcoming adversity as a paraplegic.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

News from the Hampden-Sydney Science Departments
Michael J. Wolyniak, Ava R. Kreider-Mueller, Michael C. Strayer, R. Gynn Holt, Jonathan W. Keohane, and Jennifer E. Vitale

Career Retrospective
Matthew T. Miscikowski ’26

Where There’s a Wheel, There’s a Way: A Profile of Alexander “Sasha” Rabchevsky ‘88
Richard D. Jones ’25

Feature Articles

A Silent Invasion: The Alpha-gal Syndrome Explosion in Southern Virginia
Benjamin G. Currin ’25

Antibiotics: Abused and Expensive
Ethan T. Currin ’25

Prions: A Primer and PSA
Joshua D. Ferreira ’27

Implementing Wilderness Medicine-based Electives for Undergraduate and Graduate Medical Education
Peter K. Gemborys ’25

Ebola and Coronavirus: A Retrospective
Marc Moroz II ’26

Additive Manufacturing Technologies for Small Institutions and Hospitals
Brown T.W. Riggins ’26

A History of Earthworms in North America from the Pleistocene till Now
Remy W. Trafelet ’26

Research Articles

Hampden-Sydney Inspection of Plant Borne Fungal Species
Thaddeus J. Cobb ’25 and D. Edward Lowry

A Review of Cortisol Stress Reactivity to Public Speaking Stressors
Martin N. Eschman ’24 and Miranda N. Rouse

Identification and characterization of three bacteriophages that infect Mycobacterium smegmatis
Robert H. Frazier ’26 and Michael J. Wolyniak

Gender and perception of/attitudes toward psychotherapy vs. drug therapy
Theodore W. Hendrickson ’24 and Jennifer E. Vitale

Genetically modifying E. coli to produce Insulin-like Growth Factor 1
Henry E. Loehr ’24 and Michael J. Wolyniak

Young’s Modulus Using PASCO and Horizontal Testing Method
Jared R. Medwar ’21 and Hugh O. Thurman III

Optical index of refraction
J. Kade Minton ’25, Brown T.W. Riggins ’26, Oscar A. Servellon ’26, and Hugh O. Thurman III

Genetically modifying Escherichia coli to produce Insulin-like Growth Factor 1
Marc Moroz II ’26 and Michael J. Wolyniak

Utilizing Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy to analyze amodiaquine
Garrett M. Regan ’25 and Herbert J. Sipe, Jr.

A new way to explore history and culture: Developing an image recognition web application for the Yup’ik
Seth E. Spickard ’26 and Sean P. Gleason

The acceptance of sexuality-based microaggressions towards White, Black, and Asian gay and Lesbian couples
Tristin L. Winkler ’24 and Jennifer E. Vitale