EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

David Z. Bushhouse ’19

EDITORS

Noah R. Domikis ’20
David G. Fluharty ’20
Hayden O. Gunn ’19
Alexander B. Jaramillo ’20
Neil R.E. Smith ’20
Charles A. Wolfe ’20
Corey J. Williams ’19

ADVISOR

Michael J. Wolyniak
Department of Biology

Cover Photo: Tessellations combine the creativity of art with the laws of mathematics in the formation of beautiful patterns.  By utilizing specific shapes and commands, one can generate countless varieties of patterns such as the one pictured on this year’s cover.  The basis of such patterns can be a simple shape or a more complicated image, such as the M.C. Escher-inspired pattern shown here (image created by Leonardo J. Anselmo ’19).

TABLE OF CONTENTS

News from the Hampden-Sydney Science Departments
Alexander W. Auner, Ivo I. Gyurovski ’09, Sarah Loeb, Charles A. Wolfe ’20, and Michael J. Wolyniak

Perspectives on the Opioid Crisis

Legalizing Illicit Substances to Combat the Opioid Crisis
Jake D. Beavers ’22

Organ-on-a-Chip: The Future of Drug Screening and Safety for Opioids
Andrew P. Howell ’20

Why are Opioids Such a Big Deal?
Coleman E. Johnson ’19

The Distribution of Opioids: An Insider’s Perspective
Dylan V. Karig ’21

Understanding Medication-Assisted Treatment as a Response to the Opioid Crisis
Brian D. Tarnai ’20

Big Pharma and the Opioid Crisis: Who’s at Fault?
James B. Wall ’22

Development of Alternative Medication Development and Reducing the Risk of Opioid Dependency and Overdosing
Hunter S. Weiland ’19

Feature Articles

The Future of Gene Editing
J. Coleman Burton ’20

The Art of Biology
Shawn B. Gillikin ’20 and Kristin M. Fischer

Research Articles

Algorithmic Composition: The Music of Mathematics
Carlo J. Anselmo ’18 and Marcus Pengergrass

Specific Retractions May Counteract Personal Bias in Reducing Misinformation
Jordan S. Dimmick ’18 and Robert T. Herdegen III

Investigating the Role of Different Compounds in Concrete
Hayden O. Gunn ’19 and Hugh O. Thurman III

Determining the Best Lighting Wavelength to Grow Chlorella vulgaris for the Use of Biodiesel
Douglas H. Hogan ’21, Michael J. Wolyniak, and Hugh O. Thurman III

A Study of Nonylphenol Isomers Using ESR Spectroscopy
Austin P. Kesler ’20 and Paul H. Mueller

Analyzing Negative Beta Decay Through Magnetic Spectrometry of Thallium-204
G. Houston McDowell ’19 and Hugh O. Thurman III

Using Comet Assays to Analyze the Genetic Stress of Cells Containing the Damage-Suppressing Gene found in Tardigrades
Jason D. Pough II ’19 and Michael J. Wolyniak

The Effects of Stevia on Species of Bacteria Common to the Human Gut
Brendan M. Schwartz ’19 and Michael J. Wolyniak

Improving Efficiency of a Solar Cell Using Optical Filters and Thin Films 
W. Jackson Smith ’19 and Hugh O. Thurman III

Examining the Effects of Affective and Continuance Commitment on Hiring Decisions
Roger A. Smith ’18 and Daniel G. Mossler

Encapsulating Various Proteins Within Silica Nanoparticles 
Elijah W. Smith ’20, Brian D. Tarnai ’20, Michael J. Wolyniak, and C. William Anderson

The Effects of Folic Acid on C2C12 Cell Maturation
Ryan A. Tomlin ’20 and Kristin M. Fischer

What can we do with fish mucus?: Proteomic profiles of Lepomis macrochirus, Micropterus salmoides, and Pomoxis nigromaculatus
Khoa D. Tran ’20, Gunnar R. Dowell ’20, Anthony R. Rivas ’20, and Michael J. Wolyniak

Genome sequencing of bacteria from soil samples around Hampden-Sydney College to judge soil health levels
Brennan M. Vaught ’21 and Michael J. Wolyniak

Baleen Force Measurement Observational Study
Harrison R. Whaley ’21 and Alexander J. Werth

Estimating Biodiesel/Diesel Blend Percent Composition Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and MATLAB
Charles A. Wolfe ’20 and C. William Anderson



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